β-grain refinement of α+β-Type Ti4.5Al6Nb2Fe2Mo alloy by using rare-earth-oxide precipitates

Kyosuke Ueda, Shinichiro Nakaoka, Takayuki Narushima

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10 Citations (Scopus)


The effect of the addition of small amounts of rare-earth elements such as La (0.01 mass%), Y (0.1 mass%), Er (0.1 mass%) and Ce (0.1 mass%) on the refinement of β-grains in an α+β-type Ti4.5Al6Nb2Fe2Mo alloy was investigated in the temperature range 11731573 K. The β-grain size and the rare-earth-oxide precipitates obtained after heat treatment were evaluated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Upon heating, alloys exhibited rapid β-grain growth above a threshold temperature, and this temperature depended on the added rare-earth elements. The fine precipitates of rare-earth oxides formed in the alloy suppressed the β-grain growth through pinning. Dissolution of the precipitates in the β-matrix caused rapid β-grain growth. Yttrium was found to be the most effective element for the suppression of β-grain growth at high temperatures such as 1573 K.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)161-168
Number of pages8
JournalMaterials Transactions
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • α+β-type Ti alloy
  • β-grain refinement
  • Pinning
  • Precipitates
  • Rare-earth element


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