Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their esters are known to be susceptible to free radical-mediated oxidation, whereas cholesterol is thought to be more resistant to oxidation. In fact, it has been observed that in the case of plasma lipid peroxidation, the amount of oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid was higher than that of cholesterol. In contrast, during oxidative stress-induced cellular lipid peroxidation, oxidation products of cholesterol such as 7-hydroxycholesterol (7-OHCh) were detected in greater amounts than those of linoleates such as hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE). There are several forms of oxidation products of cholesterol and linoleates in vivo, namely, hydroperoxides, as well as the hydroxides of both the free and ester forms of cholesterol and linoleates. To evaluate these oxidation products, a method used to determine the lipid oxidation products after reduction and saponification was developed. With this method, several forms of oxidation products of cholesterol and linoleates are measured as total 7-OHCh (t7-OHCh) and total HODE (tHODE), respectively. During free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation in plasma, the amount of tHODE was 6.3-fold higher than that of t7-OHCh. In contrast, when Jurkat cells were exposed to free radicals, the increased amount of cellular t7-OHCh was 5.7-fold higher than that of tHODE. Higher levels of t7-OHCh than those of tHODE have also been observed in selenium-deficient Jurkat cells and glutamate-treated neuronal cells. These results suggest that, in contrast to plasma oxidation, cellular cholesterol is more susceptible to oxidation than cellular linoleates. Collectively, cholesterol oxidation products at the 7-position may be a biomarker of cellular lipid peroxidation.
|Number of pages
|Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
|Published - 2014 Apr 11
- Cellular lipid peroxidation
- Free radical