The Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway is an important signaling pathway of interferons and cytokines. We examined the activation of STAT proteins induced by interleukin-3 (IL-3), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM- CSF), or erythropoietin (EPO) using the human leukemia cell line, UT-7, which requires these cytokines for growth. IL-3, GM-CSF, and EPO induced DNA- binding activity to the oligonucleotides corresponding to the sis-inducible elements (SIE) of c-fos, in addition to the β-casein promoter (β-CAP), SIE- and β-CAP-binding proteins were identical to Stat1α and Stat3 complex and to Stat5 protein, respectively. This indicates that IL-3, GM-CSF, and EPO commonly activated Static, Stat3, and Stat5 proteins in UT-7. However, EPO hardly activated Stat1α and Stat3 in UT-7/GM, which is a subline of UT-7 that grows slightly in response to EPO. Transfection studies revealed that UT-7/GM cells constitutively expressing Stat1α, but not Stat3, can grow as well in response to EPO as GM-CSF, suggesting that Stat1α is involved in the EPO-induced proliferation of UT-7. Thus, although Stat1α, Stat3, and Stat5 proteins are activated by GM-CSF, IL-3, and EPO, our data suggest that each STAT protein has a distinctive role in the actions of cytokines.