eonatal thymectomy (NTx) induces autoimmune gastritis (AIG) in BALB/c mice, a model for human type A chronic atrophic gastritis, but not in DBA/2 mice and rarely in CDF1 mice (a hybrid of BALB/c and DBA/2 mice). The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms of AIG-resistance in mice bearing the dominant trait of DBA/2. Linkage groups associated with, and cells related to AIG resistance were examined with CDF1-BALB/c backcrosses. Intracellular staining and flow-cytometric bead array for several cytokines were performed on NTx BALB/c mice and NTx DBA/2-chimeric BALB/c mice receiving DBA/2-bone marrow cells. In NTx BALB/c mice, IFN-γ-secreting CD4+ T cells were increased, but not in NTx DBA/2 mice. Because Vβ6+ T cell-bearing mice of half of their backcrosses developed AIG, but the other half of Vβ6+ T cell-negative mice developed scarcely, resistance for AIG generation is associated with the presence of the Mls-1a locus on chromosome 1 in DBA/2 mice, which deletes Vβ6+ T cells. NTx DBA/2-chimera BALB/c mice showed dominant production of IL-10 and resistance for AIG, although the deletion of Vβ6+ T cells was found not to be a cause of AIG-resistance from Mls-1a locus segregation experiments. Although NTx DBA/2-chimeric BALB/c mice did not suffer from AIG, they brought immediate precursors of T cells for AIG. It is concluded that DBA/2 mice generate bone marrow-derived cells that produce anti-inflammatory cytokines to prevent the activation of AIG-T cells.