This study proposes a high-speed locomotion mechanism for a pipe-inspection robot. As a result of the narrow and complex structures of pipeline networks, it is difficult for robots to move quickly within the pipes. The new pneumatic mechanism proposed here realizes high-speed locomotion along with advantageous features for pipe inspection including a small diameter, flexibility, and low weight. First, we present the design concept of the novel locomotion mechanism using pneumatic flexible hollow-shaft actuators, which was previously developed by the authors. The prototype constructed to realize this concept and the associated mathematical model are then introduced. Second, the basic characteristics of the proposed mechanism are evaluated in terms of the holding force (generated by an expansion mechanism against the pipe wall) and the impellent force that induces forward motion in the robot. Finally, the in-pipe movement performance is confirmed. The experimental results show that the designed robot can be propelled inside a 53-mm-diameter pipe at a maximum speed of 250 mm/s, which is exceedingly faster than conventional designs.