A new peritoneal dialysis fluid for Japanese patients: a randomized non-inferiority clinical trial of safety and efficacy

Masaaki Nakayama, Yoshindo Kawaguchi, Takashi Akiba, Masao Kim, Hidemune Naito, Shigeko Hara, Teruhiko Maeba, Noriaki Yorioka, James A. Sloand, Mark R. Marshall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: We report here two new peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) for Japan [BLR 250, BLR 350 (Baxter Limited, Japan)]. The PDFs use two-chamber systems, and have bicarbonate and lactate buffer to a total of 35 mmol/L. In separate trials, the new PDFs were compared to two “standard” systems [PD-4, PD-2 (Baxter Limited, Japan)]. The trials aimed to demonstrate non-inferiority of peritoneal creatinine clearance (pCcr), peritoneal urea clearance (pCurea) and ultrafiltration volume (UF), and compare acid–base and electrolyte balance. Methods: We performed randomized, multicenter, parallel group, controlled, open-label clinical trials in stable continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. The primary endpoints were pCcr and UF. The secondary endpoints were serum bicarbonate and peritoneal urea clearance. The active phase was 8 weeks. These trials were performed as non-inferiority studies, with the lower limit of non-inferiority for pCcr and UF set at 3.2 L/week/1.73 m2 and 0.12 L/day, respectively. Results: 108 patients (28 centers) and 103 patients (29 centers) took part in the two trials. Groups were well balanced at baseline. The investigative PDFs were non-inferior to the “standard” ones in terms of primary endpoints, comparable in terms of pCurea, and superior in terms acid–base balance, especially correcting those with over-alkalinization at baseline. Conclusions: We demonstrated fundamental functionality of two new PDFs and showed superior acid–base balance. Given the propensity of Japanese CAPD patients for alkalosis, it is important to avoid metabolic alkalosis which is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality risk and accelerated vascular calcification. The new PDFs are important progress of CAPD treatment for Japanese patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)895-907
Number of pages13
JournalClinical and experimental nephrology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Oct 1


  • Biocompatibility
  • Dialysis adequacy
  • Metabolic alkalosis
  • Peritoneal dialysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Nephrology
  • Physiology (medical)


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