A novel titanium oxycarbide phase with metal-vacancy (Ti1-yCxO1-x): Structural and thermodynamic basis

Bao Zhang, Jiusan Xiao, Shuqiang Jiao, Hongmin Zhu

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5 Citations (Scopus)


A unique phenomenon of TiC–TiO2 reaction at 900 °C is established, forming a quasi-pure phase of abnormal titanium oxycarbide, since it is commonly synthesized at temperatures above 1500 °C. Impurity of Magnéli phase (TinO2n-1, 4≤n≤9) is also detected in the product. Thermodynamics analysis indicates that the critical C/O concentration of titanium oxycarbide (x in TiCxO1-x) equilibrated with Magnéli phase at 900 °C is around 0.66, typically 0.651 for Ti4O7. The obtained titanium oxycarbide phase contains metal-vacancy in Ti site, as Ti1-yCxO1-x which is reported the first time, differing from stoichiometric vacancy of both Ti site and C/O site in conventional TiCxO1-x. The dominating part of TiC–TiO2 reaction at 900 °C is reaction via solid solution as directly introducing the Ti and O atoms of TiO2 into the FCC structure of TiC, which leads to the formation of metal-vacancy without altering the original lattice size, instead maintaining at the same level of TiC regardless of the variation of corresponding C/O concentration. The obtained maximum concentration of metal-vacancy in Ti1-yCxO1-x is 18%, close to the theoretical capacity of 18.9% which exists when the starting molar ratio of TiC and TiO2 is aiming to the formation of TiC0.651O0.349, as the critical composition equilibrated with Ti4O7. The stability of metal-vacancy in titanium oxycarbide is verified by first-principles calculation in the perspective of energy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16324-16332
Number of pages9
JournalCeramics International
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jun 1


  • Metal-vacancy
  • Solid solution
  • Structural refinement
  • Thermodynamic
  • Titanium oxycarbide


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