We propose a qualitative physical model of galvanotaxis of Paramecium cells using a bottom-up approach to link the microscopic ciliary motion and the macroscopic behavior of the cells. From the characteristic pattern of ciliary motion called the Ludloff phenomenon, the torque that orients the cell toward the cathode is derived mathematically. Dynamical equations of motion are derived and their stability is discussed. In numerical simulations using our model, cells exhibit realistic behavior, such as U-turns, like real cells.
- Ludloff phenomenon
- Physical model