The anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) process is a promising biological nitrogen removal technology. However, owing to the sensitivity and slow cell growth of anammox bacteria, long startup time and initially low nitrogen removal rate (NRR) are still limiting factors of practical applications of anammox process. Moreover, nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) is often lower than 88 %. This review summarizes the most common methods for improving NRR by increasing microorganism concentration, and modifying reactor configuration. Recent integrated anammox-based systems were evaluated, including hydroxyapatite (HAP)-enhanced one-stage partial nitritation/anammox (PNA) process for a high NRR of over 2 kg N/m3/d at 25 °C, partial denitrification/anammox (PDA) process, and simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox, and denitrification process for a high NRE of up to 100 %. After discussing the challenges for the application of these systems critically, a combined system of anaerobic digestion, HAP-enhanced one-stage PNA and PDA is proposed in order to achieve a high NRR, high NRE, and phosphorus removal simultaneously.
- Hydroxyapatite (HAP)
- Microorganism concentration
- Partial denitrification/anammox (PDA)
- Partial nitritation/anammox (PNA)