A rice gene for microbial symbiosis, Oryza sativa CCaMK, reduces CH4 flux in a paddy field with low nitrogen input

Zhihua Bao, Aya Watanabe, Kazuhiro Sasaki, Takashi Okubo, Takeshi Tokida, Dongyan Liu, Seishi Ikeda, Haruko Imaizumi-Anraku, Susumu Asakawa, Tadashi Sato, Hisayuki Mitsui, Kiwamu Minamisawa

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37 Citations (Scopus)


Plants have mutualistic symbiotic relationships with rhizobia and fungi by the common symbiosis pathway, of which Ca2+/calmodulin- dependent protein kinase (encoded by CCaMK) is a central component. Although Oryza sativa CCaMK (OsCCaMK) is required for fungal accommodation in rice roots, little is known about the role of OsCCaMK in rice symbiosis with bacteria. Here, we report the effect of a Tos17-induced OsCCaMK mutant (NE1115) on CH4 flux in low-nitrogen (LN) and standard-nitrogen (SN) paddy fields compared with wild-type (WT) Nipponbare. The growth of NE1115 was significantly decreased compared with that of the WT, especially in the LN field. The CH4 flux of NE1115 in the LN field was significantly greater (156 to 407% in 2011 and 170 to 816% in 2012) than that of the WT, although no difference was observed in the SN field. The copy number of pmoA (encodes methane monooxygenase in methanotrophs) was significantly higher in the roots and rhizosphere soil of the WT than in those of NE1115. However, the mcrA (encodes methyl coenzymeMreductase in methanogens) copy number did not differ between the WT and NE1115. These results were supported by a 13C-labeled CH4-feeding experiment. In addition, the natural abundance of 15N in WT shoots (3.05‰) was significantly lower than in NE1115 shoots (3.45‰), suggesting greater N2 fixation in the WT because of dilution with atmospheric N2 (0.00‰). Thus, CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation were simultaneously activated in the root zone of WT rice in the LN field and both processes are likely controlled by OsCCaMK.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1995-2003
Number of pages9
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Mar


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