A Simulation Study of the Plasma Wave Enhancements in the Earth's Equatorial Plasmasphere

Mohammad Javad Kalaee, Yuto Katoh, Takayuki Ono

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


In the equatorial plasmasphere, plasma waves are frequently observed. To improve our understanding of the mechanism generating plasma waves from instabilities, a comparison of observations, linear growth-rate calculations, and simulation results is presented. To start the numerical experiments from realistic initial plasma conditions, we use the initial parameters inferred from observational data obtained around the plasma-wave generation region by the Akebono satellite. The linear growth rates of waves of different modes are calculated under resonance conditions, and compared with simulation results and observations. By employing numerical experiments by a particle code, we first show that upper hybrid-, Z-, and whistler-mode waves are excited through instabilities driven by a ring-type velocity distribution. The simulation results suggest a possibility that energetic electrons with energies of some tens of keV confined around the geomagnetic equator are responsible for the observed enhancements of Z- and whistler-mode waves. While the comparison between linear growth-rate calculations and observations shows the different tendency of wave amplitude of Z-mode and whistler-mode waves, the wave amplitude of these wave modes in the simulation results is consistent with the observation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)131-141
Number of pages11
JournalEarth, Moon and Planets
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jun


  • Equatorial plasmasphere
  • Instability
  • Numerical simulation
  • Z-mode


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