A surface motor-driven planar motion stage integrated with an XYθZ surface encoder for precision positioning

Wei Gao, Shuichi Dejima, Hiroaki Yanai, Kei Katakura, Satoshi Kiyono, Yoshiyuki Tomita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

156 Citations (Scopus)


This paper describes a surface motor-driven XY planar motion stage equipped with a newly developed XYθZ surface encoder for sub-micron positioning. The surface motor consists of four linear motors placed on the same surface, two pairs in the XY-axes. The magnetic array and the stator winding of the linear motor are mounted on the platen (the moving element) and the stage base, respectively. The platen can be moved in the X-direction by the X-linear motors, and in the Y-direction by the Y-linear motors. It can also be rotated about the Z-axis if the X- or Y-linear motors generate a moment about the Z-axis. The surface encoder consists of two two-dimensional angle sensors and an angle grid with two-dimensional sinusoidal waves on its surface. The angle grid is mounted on the platen of the stage which is levitated by air-bearings. The angle sensors and the air-bearing pads are fixed on the stage base so that the motion of the platen is not affected by the electronic cables and air hoses. The XY-positions and θZ rotation of the platen can be obtained from the angle sensor outputs with resolutions of approximately 20nm and 0.2″, respectively. The surface encoder is placed inside the stage so that the stage system is very compact in size. Experimental results indicate that precision positioning can be carried out independently in X, Y and θZ with resolutions of 200nm and 1″, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)329-337
Number of pages9
JournalPrecision Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Jul


  • Planar motion stage
  • Precision positioning
  • Surface encoder
  • Surface motor


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