ACMarker: Acoustic Camera-Based Fiducial Marker System in Underwater Environment

Yusheng Wang, Yonghoon Ji, Dingyu Liu, Yusuke Tamura, Hiroshi Tsuchiya, Atsushi Yamashita, Hajime Asama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


ACMarker is an acoustic camera-based fiducial marker system designed for underwater environments. Optical camera-based fiducial marker systems have been widely used in computer vision and robotics applications such as augmented reality (AR), camera calibration, and robot navigation. However, in underwater environments, the performance of optical cameras is limited owing to water turbidity and illumination conditions. Acoustic cameras, which are forward-looking sonars, have been gradually applied in underwater situations. They can acquire high-resolution images even in turbid water with poor illumination. We propose methods to recognize a simply designed marker and to estimate the relative pose between the acoustic camera and the marker. The proposed system can be applied to various underwater tasks such as object tracking and localization of unmanned underwater vehicles. Simulation and real experiments were conducted to test the recognition of such markers and pose estimation based on the markers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9127781
Pages (from-to)5018-5025
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Robotics and Automation Letters
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Oct


  • computer vision for other robotic applications
  • Marine robotics


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