Additionality reconsidered: Lax criteria may not benefit developing countries

Jusen Asuka, Kenji Takeuchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


International negotiation on the additionality issue of the CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) seems to be proceeding without sufficient information or understanding. Especially apparent is a lack of recognition that the non-additional CERs (certified emission reductions) generated by relaxing the additionality criteria may lead to economic losses for developing countries. This article quantitatively reconfirms the effects of non-additional CERs on the international community, while clarifying that the generation of non-additional CERs in excess of a certain number will eventually lead to negative consequences for developing countries, even if these countries were able to acquire all the non-additional CERs. Furthermore, the Discussion section demonstrates that future system design would significantly affect the benefits of developing countries as well as the overall environmental integrity of the Kyoto mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)177-192
Number of pages16
JournalClimate Policy
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2004


  • Additionality
  • Certified emission reductions
  • Clean Development Mechanism
  • Emission trading
  • Kyoto Protocol


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