Aside from accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the brain, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been reported as being associated with peroxidation of major phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho)) and degradation of antioxidative phospholipids (e.g., ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn)). In addition to its presence in the brain, Aβ is also found in blood; however, there is still little information about the levels of PtdCho hydroperoxide (PCOOH) and PlsEtn in the blood of patients with AD. In this study, by assuming a possible interaction among Aβ, PCOOH, and PlsEtn in blood circulation, we evaluated the levels of these molecules and correlations in blood samples that had been obtained from our former AD study for PCOOH measurement (Kiko et al., J Alzheimers Dis 28, 593-600, 2012). We found that when compared to controls, plasma from patients with AD showed lower concentrations of PlsEtn species, especially PlsEtn bearing the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) moiety. In addition, lower PlsEtn and higher PCOOH levels were observed in red blood cells (RBCs) of patients with AD. In both AD and control blood samples, RBC PCOOH levels tended to correlate with plasma levels of Aβ40, and each PlsEtn species showed different correlations with plasma Aβ. These results, together with in vitro data suggesting Aβ aggregation due to a decrease in levels of PlsEtn having DHA, led us to deduce that Aβ is involved in alterations in levels of PCOOH and PlsEtn species observed in the blood of patients with AD.
- Alzheimer's disease
- phospholipid hydroperoxide