Orthodontic force induces osteoclastogenesis in vivo. It has recently been reported that administration of an antibody against the macrophage-colony- stimulating factor (M-CSF) receptor c-Fms blocks osteoclastogenesis and bone erosion induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) administration. This study aimed to examine the effect of an anti-c-Fms antibody on mechanical loading-induced osteoclastogenesis and osteolysis in an orthodontic tooth movement model in mice. Using TNF receptor 1- and 2-deficient mice, we showed that orthodontic tooth movement was mediated by TNF-α. We injected anti-c-Fms antibody daily into a local site, for 12 days, during mechanical loading. The anti-c-Fms antibody significantly inhibited orthodontic tooth movement, markedly reduced the number of osteoclasts in vivo, and inhibited TNF-α-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. These findings suggest that M-CSF plays an important role in mechanical loading-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption during orthodontic tooth movement mediated by TNF-α.