Is it possible to localize a memory trace to a subset of cells in the brain? If so, it should be possible to show: first, that neuronal plasticity occurs in these cells. Second, that neuronal plasticity in these cells is sufficient for memory. Third, that neuronal plasticity in these cells is necessary for memory. Fourth, that memory is abolished if these cells cannot provide output during testing. And fifth, that memory is abolished if these cells cannot receive input during training. With regard to olfactory learning in flies, we argue that the notion of the olfactory memory trace being localized to the Kenyon cells of the mushroom bodies is a reasonable working hypothesis.