An enzyme-based microfluidic biofuel cell using vitamin K3-mediated glucose oxidation

Makoto Togo, Akimasa Takamura, Tatsuya Asai, Hirokazu Kaji, Matsuhiko Nishizawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

134 Citations (Scopus)


Viamin K3-modified poly-l-lysine (PLL-VK3) was synthesized and used as the electron transfer mediator during catalytic oxidation of NADH by diaphorase (Dp) at the anode of biofuel cell. PLL-VK3 and Dp were co-immobilized on an electrode and then coated with NAD+-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH). The resulting enzymatic bilayer (abbreviated PLL-VK3/Dp/GDH) catalyzed glucose oxidation. Addition of carbon black (Ketjenblack, KB) into the bilayer enlarged the effective surface area of the electrode and consequentially increased the catalytic activity. An oxidation current of ca. 2 mA cm-2 was observed when the electrochemical cell contained a stirred 30 mM glucose, 1.0 mM NAD+, pH 7.0 phosphate-buffered electrolyte solution. The performance of glucose/O2 biofuel cells, constructed as fluidic chips with controllable fuel flow and containing a KB/PLL-VK3/Dp/GDH-coated anode and an Ag/AgCl or a polydimethylsiloxane-coated Pt cathode, were evaluated. The open circuit voltage of the cell with the PDMS-coated Pt cathode was 0.55 V and its maximum power density was 32 μW cm-2 at 0.29 V when a pH 7.0-buffered fuel containing 5.0 mM glucose and 1.0 mM NAD+ was introduced into the cell at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. The cell's output increased as the flow rate increased. During 18 h of continuous operation of the cell with a load of 100 kΩ, the output current density declined by ca. 50%, probably due to swelling of the enzyme bilayer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4669-4674
Number of pages6
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Apr 1


  • Biofuel cell
  • Diaphorase
  • Glucose dehydrogenase
  • Microfluidics
  • Vitamin K


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