Background and Aims: Sodium-dependent glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, which are anti-diabetic drugs, reportedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with cardiovascular diseases, and thus chronic heart failure (CHF). SGLT-2 inhibitors also decrease albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Since albuminuria is a biomarker of not only chronic kidney disease but also cardiovascular events, we hypothesized that, among T2D patients with CHF, SGLT-2 inhibitors will decrease the extent of albuminuria and also improve CHF concomitantly. Methods: DAPPER (UMIN000025102) is a multicenter, randomized, open-labeled, parallel-group, standard treatment-controlled study, which is designed to evaluate whether dapagliflozin, one of the SGLT-2 inhibitors, decreases albuminuria in T2D patients with CHF and exerts cardioprotective effects on the failing heart. The patients are randomized to either of the dapagliflozin (5 or 10 mg, once daily orally) or control group (administration of anti-diabetic drugs administered other than SGLT 2 inhibitors). The estimated number of patients that need to be enrolled is 446 in total (223 in each group). The primary objective is the changes in the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio from the baseline after 2-year treatment. The key secondary objectives are (1) the safety of dapagliflozin and (2) the cardiovascular and renal efficacies of dapagliflozin. Conclusion and Perspectives: DAPPER study investigates whether dapagliflozin decreases albuminuria and exerts beneficial effects on the failing heart in T2D patients. (UMIN000025102).
- Cardiovascular protection
- Chronic heart failure
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus
- Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio