An overview of production of titanium and an attempt to titanium production with ferro-titanium

Mrutyunjay Panigrahi, Raja Kishore Paramguru, Rakesh Chandra Gupta, Etsuro Shibata, Takashi Nakamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Many reactive metals are difficult to prepare in pure form without complicated and expensive procedures. Titanium, in spite of its abundance and numerous favorable properties is not in use to the extent it deserves. This is due to its prohibitive cost compared to other structural metals such as steel and aluminium. In the current pyro-metallurgical (Kroll's) process the titanium minerals are carbo-chlorinated to remove oxygen and other impurities, producing a TiCl4 vapour. This is then reduced to titanium metal by magnesium (Mg) metal and the by-product MgCl2 is removed by vacuum distillation. This article shows an alternative replaced by electrochemical route to the existing Kroll's and Hunter's process due to its estimated low cost and elimination of chlorination step. In view of the above, a detailed literature survey has been made on the various approaches towards developing alternative technologies after giving a brief introduction with properties and various current applications of titanium and ferrotitanium. The various aspects of the alternative processes along with their merits and demerits are also discussed. In addition an attempt to produce ferrotitanium was done by modified FFC process to clarify the possibility and problems of FFC process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)495-513
Number of pages19
JournalHigh Temperature Materials and Processes
Issue number5-6
Publication statusPublished - 2010


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