Analysis of macular drusen and blood test results in 945 Macaca fascicularis

Koji M. Nishiguchi, Yu Yokoyama, Yusuke Fujii, Kosuke Fujita, Yusuke Tomiyama, Ryo Kawasaki, Toshinori Furukawa, Fumiko Ono, Nobuhiro Shimozawa, Mutsumi Togo, Michihiro Suzuki, Toru Nakazawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Age-dependent formation of macular drusen caused by the focal accumulation of extracellular deposits beneath the retinal pigment epithelium precede the development of agerelated macular degeneration (AMD), one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. It is established that inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of drusen and AMD. However, development of a preemptive therapeutic strategy targeting macular drusen and AMD has been impeded by the lack of relevant animal models because most laboratory animals lack macula, an anatomic feature present only in humans and a subset of monkeys. Reportedly, macular drusen and macular degeneration develop in monkeys in an age-dependent manner. In this study, we analyzed blood test results from 945 Macaca fascicularis, 317 with and 628 without drusen. First, a trend test for drusen frequency (the Cochran-Armitage test) was applied to the quartile data for each parameter. We selected variables with an increasing or decreasing trend with higher quartiles at P < 0.05, to which multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied. This revealed a positive association of age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.10 per year, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.12) and white blood cell count (OR: 1.01 per 1 × 103/μl, 95% CI: 1.00-1.01) with drusen. When the monkeys were divided by age, the association between drusen and white blood cell count was only evident in younger monkeys (OR: 1.01 per 1 × 103/μl, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02). In conclusion, age and white blood cell count may be associated with drusen development in M. fascicularis. Systemic inflammation may contribute to drusen formation in monkeys.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0164899
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Oct


Dive into the research topics of 'Analysis of macular drusen and blood test results in 945 Macaca fascicularis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this