Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) represents glomerular disease resulting from a number of different etiologies leading to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Recently, many genes causing SRNS/FSGS have been identified. These genes encode the proteins associated with the formation and/or maintenance of glomerular filtration barrier. Next-generation sequencing is used to analyze large numbers of genes at lower costs. To identify the genetic background of Japanese patients, we studied 26 disease-causing genes using whole-exome sequencing analysis in 24 patients with SRNS and/or FSGS from 22 different Japanese families. We finally found eight causative gene mutations, four recessive and four dominant gene mutations, including three novel mutations, in six patients from five different families, and one novel predisposing mutation in two patients from two different families. Causative gene mutations have only been identified in ∼20% of families and further analysis is necessary to identify the unknown disease-causing gene. Identification of the disease-causing gene would support clinical practices, including the diagnosis, understanding of pathogenesis and treatment.