Analysis on urban residential energy consumption of Hot Summer & Cold Winter Zone in China

Tianchi Hu, Hiroshi Yoshino, Zhongtian Jiang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


The purposes of this study were to investigate and analyze the actual conditions of the residential energy consumption, and hence to ascertain what would be the important factors that influence the annual energy consumption in four Chinese cities. The questionnaire surveys revealed building characteristics, housing appliances, household characteristics, indoor environment and aspects of life style, during winter and summer seasons. The energy consumption analyses showed that the average annual energy consumption of households in Chongqing reached 41.1 GJ which was the largest among all households in the investigated cities. The influence factor analyses showed that the important influence factors were city location, floor area, CDD and water heater type. The standards "Thermal design code for civil building", GB 50176-93 helps to save energy. The households equipped with solar water heater (SWH) consumed less energy, however, its possession rate was low because of the poor quality in the Chinese market. Thus, corresponding policy steering mechanisms of SWH are needed for energy saving. The annual energy consumption for water heater in Shanghai, Chongqing and Changsha was 6.7, 8.3 and 5.7 GJ, accounted for 23%, 20% and 18% respectively. The more energy would be saved if more households use solar water heater.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-91
Number of pages7
JournalSustainable Cities and Society
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Feb


  • Energy consumption
  • Influence factors
  • Residential building

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Transportation


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