Anesthetic management with remimazolam for a pediatric patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Yuta Horikoshi, Norifumi Kuratani, Ken Tateno, Hiroshi Hoshijima, Tina Nakamura, Tsutomu Mieda, Katsushi Doi, Hiroshi Nagasaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Rationale:With Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) being the most common and most severe type of muscular dystrophy, DMD patients are at risk for complications from general anesthesia due to impaired cardiac and respiratory functions as the pathological condition progresses. In recent years, advances in multidisciplinary treatment have improved the prognosis of DMD patients, and the number of patients requiring surgery has increased. Remimazolam is a benzodiazepine derivative similar to midazolam. Its circulatory stability and the fact that it has an antagonist make it superior to propofol.There are no reports of pediatric patients with DMD undergoing total intravenous anesthesia with remimazolam.Patient concerns:A 4-year boy was scheduled for single-incision laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure for inguinal hernia under general anesthesia, but the surgery was postponed because his serum creatine phosphokinase level was extremely high.Diagnosis:He was diagnosed with DMD. According to the results of the genetic test, exon deletion of the DMD gene was detected using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, although he had no symptoms of DMD except for elevated serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, etc.Intervention:He was admitted for the same surgical purpose. Anesthesia was induced with 3 mg of intravenously administered remimazolam. He lost the ability to respond to verbal commands. After the intravenous administration of 100 μg of fentanyl, a continuous infusion of remifentanil (1.0 μg/kg/min) and remimazolam (15 mg/h) was started, and the endotracheal tube was inserted smoothly after the administration of 10 mg of rocuronium with which the muscle twitches disappeared in train-of-four monitoring. At the end of the surgery, 15 mg of flurbiprofen was administered intravenously. After surgery, we injected 40 mg of sugammadex to confirm a train-of-four count of 100%.Outcomes:Although the dose of remimazolam was reduced to 5 mg/h 30 minutes before the end of the surgery, it took 20 minutes after the discontinuation of remimazolam for the patient to open his eyes upon verbal command. On postoperative Day 2, he was discharged from the hospital without any complications.Lessons:Remimazolam was shown to be safe to use for general anesthesia in a pediatric patient with DMD.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere28209
JournalMedicine (United States)
Issue number49
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec 10


  • anesthesia
  • duchenne muscular dystrophy
  • remimazolam


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