Another Use of the Five-Card Trick: Card-Minimal Secure Three-Input Majority Function Evaluation

Kodai Toyoda, Daiki Miyahara, Takaaki Mizuki

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Starting from the five-card trick proposed by Den Boer (EUROCRYPT’ 89), many card-based protocols performing secure multiparty computations with a deck of physical cards have been devised. However, the five-card trick is considered to be still the most elegant, easy-to-understand and practical protocol, which enables two players to securely evaluate the AND value of their private inputs using five cards. In other words, for more than thirty years, in the research area of card-based cryptography, we have not discovered any protocols that are as simple and beautiful as the five-card trick. In this study, making use of the five-card trick, we design a novel easy-to-understand protocol which securely evaluates the three-input majority function using six cards. That is, by applying a simple shuffle, we reduce a secure three-input majority computation to evaluating the AND value. By virtue of a direct application of the five-card trick, our proposed majority protocol is extremely simple enough for lay-people to execute. In addition, one advantage is that ordinary people such as high school students will be able to learn the concept of logical AND/OR operations and the majority function as well as their relationship through our majority protocol, providing a nice tool of pedagogical significance. Thus, we believe that our new protocol is no less practical and beautiful than the five-card trick.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProgress in Cryptology – INDOCRYPT 2021 - 22nd International Conference on Cryptology in India, 2021, Proceedings
EditorsAvishek Adhikari, Ralf Küsters, Bart Preneel
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages20
ISBN (Print)9783030925178
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event22nd International Conference on Cryptology in India, INDOCRYPT 2021 - Jaipur, India
Duration: 2021 Dec 122021 Dec 15

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume13143 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference22nd International Conference on Cryptology in India, INDOCRYPT 2021


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