Antral recirculation in the stomach during gastric mixing

Yohsuke Imai, Ikuma Kobayashi, Shunichi Ishida, Takuji Ishikawa, Martin Buist, Takami Yamaguchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Citations (Scopus)


We investigate flow in the stomach during gastric mixing using a numerical simulation with an anatomically realistic geometry and freesurface flow modeling. Because of momentum differences between greater and lesser curvatures during peristaltic contractions, timeaveraged recirculation is generated in the antrum, with retropulsive flow away from the pylorus and compensation flow along the greater curvature toward the pylorus. Gastric content in the distal stomach is continuously transported to the distal antrum by the forward flow of antral recirculation, and it is then mixed by the backward retropulsive flow. Hence, the content inside the antral recirculation is well mixed independently of initial location, whereas the content outside the recirculation is poorly mixed. Free-surface modeling enables us to analyze the effects of posture on gastric mixing. In the upright, prone, and right lateral positions, most of the antrum is filled with content, and the content is well mixed by antral recirculation. In contrast, in the supine and left lateral positions, most of the content is located outside antral recirculation, which results in poor mixing. The curved, twisted shape of the stomach substantially supports gastric mixing in fluid mechanical terms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)G536-G542
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Computational biomechanics
  • Freesurface flow
  • Gastric flow
  • Realistic geometry


Dive into the research topics of 'Antral recirculation in the stomach during gastric mixing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this