We have applied the spectroscopic photoemission and low energy electron microscope to study high-k gate dielectrics and have performed the following in situ operations during ultrahigh vacuum annealing: real-time observation of surface morphology and microregion photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Changes in surface morphology and electronic states were consistent with the models previously reported in the case of HfO2/Si. No clear differences between void regions and nonvoid regions have been observed in microregion photoelectron spectra for poly-Si/HfO2/Si, regardless of phase separation in real space. These results have suggested that the initial void formation occurs in about 100-nm wide regions for both HfO2/Si and poly-Si/HfO2/Si.
- Electronic states
- High-k gate dielectrics
- Microregion photoelectron spectroscopy
- Vacuum annealing