Hydrogel is a polymer matrix containing a large amount of water. It is similar to extracellular matrix components. It comes into contact with blood, body fluids, and human tissues without affecting the metabolism of organisms. It can be applied to bone and cartilage tissues. This article introduces the high-strength polymer hydrogel and its modification methods to adapt to the field of bone and cartilage tissue engineering. From the perspective of the mechanical properties of hydrogels, the mechanical strength of hydrogels has experienced from the weak-strength traditional hydrogels to the high-strength hydrogels, then the injectable hydrogels were invented and realized the purpose of good fluidity before the use of hydrogels and high strength in the later period. In addition, specific methods to give special physical properties to the hydrogel used in the field of bone and cartilage tissue engineering will also be discussed, such as 3D printing, integrated repair of bone and cartilage tissue, bone vascularization, and osteogenesis hydrogels that regulate cell growth, antibacterial properties, and repeatable viscosity in humid environments. Finally, we explain the main reasons and contradictions in current applications, look forward to the research prospects in the field of bone and cartilage tissue engineering, and emphasize the importance of conducting research in this field to promote medical progress.
- Bone regeneration
- Mechanical property