Are social inequalities in influenza vaccination coverage in Japan reduced by health policy?

Tselmuun Chinzorig, Kemmyo Sugiyama, Jun Aida, Toru Tsuboya, Ken Osaka

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6 Citations (Scopus)


Influenza vaccination is effective to prevent influenza infection. However, findings about association between socioeconomic status and influenza vaccination coverage are controversial. Online survey was conducted among 4995 participants between 20 and 69 years of age throughout Japan, January 2017. We asked about history of receiving vaccination in previous year and socioeconomic status, with their reasons for having vaccination or not. Age stratified multivariable logistic regression model was conducted to estimate the odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of receiving vaccine for each educational level and income. Sex, self-reported health status, marital status and income were included as covariates. The rate for receiving influenza vaccine among ≤64 year-olds and ≥65 year-olds was 32.9% and 35.4%, respectively. Among younger adults, vaccination varied by each education: junior high school, 23.6%; senior high school, 27.2%; college, 32.6%; university, 36.2%; and graduate school, 39.8%. Compared to junior high school, those from graduate school tended to be more vaccinated (OR1.88, 95%CI 1.07–3.24). On the contrary, those aged above ≥65 years old received vaccination with no significant differences across education. Likewise, among respondents aged ≤64 year-olds, income was significantly associated with influenza vaccination. Despite being “Managed by school or company” (32.5%), having “No particular reason” was the frequent reason for both receiving influenza vaccination (23.8%) or not (34.3%). Adults with higher educational level were significantly more likely to receive vaccination. Subsidizing influenza vaccination may reduce inequality in receiving vaccination for adults. Strengthening vaccination through various approaches is necessary, such as managing by school or company.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100959
JournalPreventive Medicine Reports
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Dec


  • Awareness
  • Inequalities
  • Influenza
  • Policy
  • Vaccination


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