To obtain a stable and highly sensitive bioimaging fluorescence probe, polymer nanoparticles with embedded quantum dots were covered with an artificial cell membrane. These nanoparticles were designed by assembling phospholipid polar groups as a platform, and oligopeptide was immobilized as a bioaffinity moiety on the surface of the nanoparticles. The polymer nanoparticles showed resistance to cellular uptake from HeLa cells owing to the nature of the phosphorylcholine groups. When arginine octapeptide was immobilized at the surface of the nanoparticles, they were able to penetrate the membrane of HeLa cells effectively. Cytotoxicty of the nanoparticles was not observed even after immobilization of oligopeptide. Thus, we obtained stable fluorescent polymer nanoparticles covered with an artificial cell membrane, which are useful as an excellent bioimaging probe and as a novel evaluation tool for oligopeptide functions in the target cells.