An 83-year-old man had an influenza-like upper respiratory infection that progressed to pneumonia and respiratory insufficiency during a period two weeks. After admission, anti-influenza A antibody increased 32-fold and antibiotic treatment had little effect on the pneumonia. Aspergillus antigen was detected from his serum and pleural effusion, however, culture of sputum was negative for aspergillus. Administration of amphotericin B reduced the serum level of aspergillus antigen, however he died due to the progression of respiratory insufficiency and bloody sputum. Aspergillus infection is generally thought to occur in immunocompromised hosts, but this patient had no apparent immunosuppressive conditions except for his age before the influenza A infection. His WBC and lymphocyte count temporally decreased to 2,000 x 106/L (lymphocytes 160 x 106/L) followed by aspergillus infection. This temporally reduction of lymphocytes is thought to have been responsible for the aspergillus infection. Complications of influenza infection are sometimes fatal and vaccination against influenza seems necessary in high risk individuals such as elderly people.