The understanding of the interparticle interactions of nanocomposite structures assembled using molecularly capped metal nanoparticles and macromolecular mediators as building blocks is essential for exploring the fine-tunable interparticle spatial and macromolecular properties. This paper reports the results of an investigation of the chemically tunable multifunctional interactions between fullerenes (1-(4-methyl)-piperazinyl fullerene, MPF) and gold nanoparticles. The interparticle spatial properties are defined by the macromolecular and multifunctional electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged nanoparticles and the positively charged fullerenes. In addition to characterization of the morphological properties, the surface plasmon resonance band, dynamic light scattering, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties of the MPF-mediated assembly and disassembly processes have been determined. The change of the optical properties depends on the pH and electrolyte concentrations. The detection of the Ramanactive vibration modes (A g(2) and H g(8)) of C 60 and the determination of their particle size dependence have demonstrated that the adsorption of MPF on the nanoparticle surface in the MPF-Au nm assembly is responsible for the SERS effect. These findings provide new insights into the delineation between the interparticle interactions and the nanostructural properties for potential applications of the nanocomposite materials in spectroscopic and optical sensors and in controlled releases.