Fermented food is a rich source of antioxidants and micronutrients with the potential to prevent various human diseases. The increasing evidence indicates that in addition to its direct action, radical-scavenging antioxidants may modulate the cellular antioxidant system such as glutathione. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant activity of Antioxidant Biofactor (AOB™) extracts, a mixture of commercially available fermented grain food by using chemical and cellular experimental systems. In the former system, the total radical scavenging capacity was assessed from the bleaching of pyranine and pyrogallol red that is induced by free radicals generated from an azo initiator. In this assay system, the radical scavenging capacity per gram of AOB was estimated to be 95 μmol. On the other hand, the cytoprotective effect of AOB was also investigated on the basis of PC12 cell death induced by 6-hydroxydopamine. In this cellular system, AOB extract exhibited a cytoprotective effect only when the cells were pretreated with AOB. This pretreatment resulted in a significant increase in the levels of cellular glutathione as well as regulator of glutathione synthesis, such as the cystine/glutamate exchange transport system (xCT). This evidence suggests that AOB possesses both direct and indirect antioxidant activities to cope with oxidative insults.
- Antioxidant Biofactor (AOB)
- Antioxidant capacity assessment
- Antioxidant system
- Cystine/glutamate exchange transport system
- Glutamate-cysteine ligase
- Radical scavenging