Background: Microalbuminuria is recognized as a marker of generalized vascular dysfunction. However, the associations between microalbuminuria and pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP), respectively, have not been investigated. Methods: Brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV), IMT, and ABP were determined in 328 individuals (mean age, 65.7 ± 6.4 years) from the general population of Ohasama, a rural Japanese community. The participants were assigned to groups with microalbuminuria and with normoalbuminuria, and their characteristics were compared. We also examined the association between microalbuminuria and baPWV, IMT, and ABP, respectively, using multivariate analyses. Results: Seventy-nine participants (24%) with microalbuminuria had significantly higher baPWV (P < 0.001) and 24-h systolic BP (SBP) (P = 0.006) than those with normoalbuminuria, although 24-h pulse pressure and mean IMT did not significantly differ between the groups. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that baPWV, but not 24-h ABP, was independently associated with microalbuminuria (P = 0.002) when adjusted for various confounding factors. After further adjustment for 24-h SBP, the association between baPWV and microalbuminuria remained significant (P = 0.012). The trend was significant even when daytime or nighttime SBP was used instead of 24-hour SBP in this model. Conclusions: Microalbuminuria appears to be associated with baPWV more closely than with IMT and ABP, and its association with baPWV is independent of ABP and other cardiovascular risk factors.