Beam codebook based beamforming protocol for multi-Gbps millimeter-wave WPAN systems

Junyi Wang, Zhou Lan, Chang Woo Pyo, Tuncer Baykas, Chin Sean Sum, M. Azizur Rahman, Jing Gao, Ryuhei Funada, Fumihide Kojima, Hiroshi Harada, Shuzo Kato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

569 Citations (Scopus)


In order to realize high speed, long range, reliable transmission in millimeter-wave 60GHz wireless personal area networks (60GHz WPANs), we propose a beamforming (BF) protocol realized in media access control (MAC) layer on top of multiple physical layer (PHY) designs. The proposed BF protocol targets to minimize the BF set-up time and to mitigate the high path loss of 60GHz WPAN systems. It consists of 3 stages, namely the device (DEV) to DEV linking, sector-level searching and beam-level searching. The division of the stages facilitates significant reduction in setup time as compared to BF protocols with exhaustive searching mechanisms. The proposed BF protocol employs discrete phase-shifters, which significantly simplifies the structure of DEVs as compared to the conventional BF with phase-and-amplitude adjustment, at the expense of a gain degradation of less than 1dB. The proposed BF protocol is a complete design and PHY-independent, it is applicable to different antenna configurations. Simulation results show that the setup time of the proposed BF protocol is as small as 2% when compared to the exhaustive searching protocol. Furthermore, based on the codebooks with four phases per element, around 15.1dB gain is achieved by using eight antenna elements at both transmitter and receiver, thereby enabling 1.6Gbps-datastreaming over a range of three meters. Due to the flexibility in supportingmultiple PHY layer designs, the proposed protocol has been adopted by the IEEE 802.15.3c as an optional functionality to realize Gbps communication systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5262295
Pages (from-to)1390-1399
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Oct
Externally publishedYes


  • 60 GHz
  • Beam codebook
  • Beamforming
  • MAC
  • Millimeter-wave
  • Multi-Gbps
  • Protocol
  • WPAN

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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