Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a renal disease characterized by severe proteinuria and hypoproteinemia. Although several single-gene mutations have been associated with steroidresistant NS, causative genes for steroid-sensitive NS (SSNS) have not been clarified. While seeking to identify causative genes associated with SSNS by whole-exome sequencing, we found compound heterozygous variants/mutations (c.524T>C; p.I175T and c.662G>A; p.R221H) of the interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP) gene in two siblings with SSNS. The siblings' parents are healthy, and each parent carries a different heterozygous IL1RAP variant/mutation. Since IL1RAP is a critical subunit of the functional interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R), we investigated the effect of these variants on IL-1R subunit function. When stimulated with IL-1β, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the siblings with SSNS produced markedly lower levels of cytokines compared with cells from healthy family members. Moreover, IL-1R with a variant IL1RAP subunit, reconstituted on a hematopoietic cell line, had impaired binding ability and low reactivity to IL-1β. Thus, the amino acid substitutions in IL1RAP found in these NS patients are dysfunctional variants/mutations. Furthermore, in the kidney of Il1rap-/-mice, the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which require IL-1β for their differentiation, was markedly reduced although these mice did not show significantly increased proteinuria in acute nephrotic injury with lipopolysaccharide treatment. Together, these results identify two IL1RAP variants/mutations in humans for the first time and suggest that IL1RAP might be a causative gene for familial NS.
- Familial nephrotic syndrome
- Interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein
- Myeloid-derived suppressor cell