The bioactivity of anodized near-β TiNbSn alloy with low Young's modulus prepared in sulfuric acid electrolytes was examined to explore the osseointegration mechanism with a focus on the role of anodic oxide. Hydroxyapatite (HA) precipitated on the surface of anodic oxide following immersion in Hank's solution, and precipitation accelerated with increase in the sulfuric acid concentration of the electrolyte. HA is formed on the surface of as-anodized oxide without subsequent annealing or hot water (HW) treatment. This outcome differs from that of a previous study using anodized TiNbSn alloy prepared in acetic acid electrolytes requiring for subsequent HW treatment. It was found that the oxide anodized in sulfuric acid electrolyte contains a large amount of internal pores and is highly crystallized thick TiO 2 , whereas the same prepared in the acetic acid electrolyte is low crystalline thin TiO 2 containing a small amount of pores. The present anodized TiNbSn alloy is preferred for maintaining the low Young's modulus of the alloy and eliminating the subsequent treatment to increase the Young's modulus. A model to rationalize the bioactivity of the present anodic oxide is proposed based on the series of studies. It is concluded that the sulfuric acid electrolyte is favorable for both HA formation and low Young's modulus, and the bioactivity is attributed to the anodic TiO 2 that facilitates incorporation of bone ingredients.