Biomarkers for Predicting Efficacies of Anti-PD1 Antibodies

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Therapeutic options for treating advanced melanoma are progressing rapidly. Although anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD1) antibodies (e.g., nivolumab, pembrolizumab) have been approved as first-line and anchor drugs, respectively, for treating advanced melanoma, the efficacy appears limited as we expected, especially in Asian populations. Biomarkers to predict or evaluate the efficacy of anti-PD1 antibodies are needed to avoid subjecting patients to potentially severe adverse events associated with switching to other anti-melanoma drugs. This review focuses on the recent development of biomarkers for assessing the efficacy of anti-PD1 antibodies using routine blood tests such as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, eosinophil ratio, serum markers such as lactate dehydrogenase, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on melanoma cells, microsatellite instability and mismatch repair deficiency assays, as well as soluble CD163, and tumor-associated macrophage-related chemokines (e.g., CXCL5, CXCL10).

Original languageEnglish
Article number174
JournalFrontiers in Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jul 31


  • LDH
  • MSH
  • TAM-related factors
  • TMB
  • anti-PD1 antibodies
  • routine blood test


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