Estuaries in the areas prone to anthropogenic activities are exposed to multifarious pollutants. Toxic concentrations of heavy metals do exist with persistent organic compounds in such estuaries prolonging the recalcitrance and ecotoxicological consequences of the chemicals, which impact on the health of the brackish water and by extension, the oceans. The quest for high aesthetic quality of the estuarine environment is gaining attention from global campaign, which requires effective remedial strategies to replace the physical and chemical methods in use that are costly and often leave behind toxic residues in the environment. Contrary to physico-chemical remedial processes, bioremediation strategies are projected as a promising green technology to remove pollutants from the estuarine environment. The concept of bioremediation involves the use of competent biological elements such as microorganisms and plants, along with or without the biomolecules they produced, to ameliorate pollution. Therefore, this paper reviews the various bioremediation technologies that would be applicable to decommissioning estuarine environments polluted with toxic metals and persistent organic compounds.
- Estuarine environment
- Heavy metals
- Persistent organic pollutants