Blood pressure and chronic kidney disease stratified by gender and the use of antihypertensive drugs

Michihiro Satoh, Takuo Hirose, Shingo Nakayama, Takahisa Murakami, Kyosuke Takabatake, Kei Asayama, Yutaka Imai, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Takefumi Mori, Hirohito Metoki

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9 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: The present study assessed the association between blood pressure (BP) and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) according to gender and the use of antihypertensive drugs using data from a large-scale health checkup. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the JMDC database, which contains annual health checkup data of Japanese employees and their dependents aged <75 years. We included 154 692 participants (men, 69.68%; mean age, 44.74 years) without CKD. CKD was indicated by an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or the presence of proteinuria. During the mean follow-up period of 4.78 years, new-onset CKD occurred in 14 888 participants. When the normal BP group (systolic/diastolic BP <120/<80 mm Hg) without treatment was used as a reference, the hazard ratios of the high BP (130–139/80–89 mm Hg) and grade 1 (140–159/90–99 mm Hg) and grade 2 or 3 hypertension (≥160/≥100 mm Hg) groups were 1.11 (95% CI, 1.06–1.17), 1.36 (95% CI, 1.28–1.45), and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.56–1.99) for untreated men, respectively. However, in treated men, even normal BP was associated with a 1.5-fold higher risk of CKD. The association between BP and the risk of CKD was weaker in untreated women than in untreated men. The risk of CKD in treated women with normal BP was similar to that of untreated women with normal BP. CONCLUSIONS: Gender differences were found in the association between BP and CKD risk. Kidney function in treated individuals should be followed carefully, especially in men.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere015592
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Aug 16


  • Blood pressure
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Cohort study
  • Database


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