Bottom-to-Up synthesis of functional carbon nitride polymer: Design principles, controlled synthesis and applications

Yunxiong Zeng, Xingyu Zhan, Hao Li, Xingyu Xiong, Bo Hong, Yingchun Xia, Yangbin Ding, Xinqing Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Graphitic carbon nitride polymer (g-C3N4) plays an key role in the field of solar-to-fuel conversion and environmental remediation due to adjustable photoelectric properties, intrinsic earth-abundant nature, environmental-benign and outstanding physicochemical stability. The photoactivity is limited by rapid recombination of electron-hole pairs and sluggish kinetics. To address the issue, a diverse of hierarchical structures, shapes and dimensions have been designed and controllably synthesized at the micro/nanometer scale. Although significant achievements made, a facile, versatile and scalable bottom-up synthesis strategy seems more urgently required than the top-down route. Herein, this Review introduces the mechanisms of template methods, supramolecular preorganization assembly and template-free strategy (i.e., monomer self-template technique, monomer-free template route) for synthesizing functional g-C3N4 polymer, and then illustrates the design principles and controlled synthesis. Subsequently, summarize advancement of polymeric g-C3N4 applications in solar-to-fuels conversion and environmental remediation. Finally, this Review concludes with a summary and an invigorating perspective on the challenges, future directions at the forefront of bottom-up strategy for synthesizing functional g-C3N4 polymer. Hoped that the Review stimulates a new doorway to facilitate the generation of highly desirable, rational-design, and high-efficiency g-C3N4 polymeric catalysts for advanced applications ranging from clean fuel production to environmental decontamination.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111734
JournalEuropean Polymer Journal
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jan 3


  • Artificial Photocatalysis
  • Bottom-to-Up
  • Carbon Nitride Polymer
  • Environment Remediation
  • Solar-to-chemical Fuel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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