Effects of the tungsten (W) ions co-doping on the crystal growth, optical and scintillation properties for the Czochralski (Cz) grown Ce:Gd3Ga3Al2O12(GGAG) single crystals were investigated. The W 0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, 1%, and 5% co-doped Ce 1%:GGAG single crystals with a diameter of 1 in and length of 60-80 mm were grown by the Cz method. The effective segregation coefficient of the W ions was found as 0.002, 0.001, and 0.005 for W 0.1%, 0.3%, and 1%, Ce:GGAG, respectively. The segregation of W ions in GGAG host, light yield, and scintillation decay of the W co-doped Ce:GGAG were evaluated. The light yield decreased as the concentration of W co-dopant increased and toward the tail of the crystal. Furthermore, the defect role and related charge trapping in the W co-doped crystals were monitored by the thermo-stimulated luminescence.
- scintillator materials
- single crystal growth