The effect of phosphate concentration on the anammox-HAP process was investigated in this work. A high total nitrogen removal efficiency (>82.6%) and a stable total phosphate removal efficiency (>56.2%) was achieved in reactor with the phosphate concentration over 11.4 mg L−1. However, a phosphate concentration below to 5.7 mg L−1, a floatation of sludge occurred caused the deterioration of process. A new understanding for the floatation was divided into three stages: the stable stage, bulking stage and floating stage. First, anammox biofilm coupled with HAP for granulation in the stable stage. Second, the aggregation of bulking sludge resulted in changes in viscoelastic properties of the sludge. Third, the floatation resulted from unreleasable gas bubbles in the granules wrapped a high concentrations of slime layer proteins. Overall, this paper suggests that a control strategy was a sufficient supply of phosphate for the stable operation.
- Sludge bulking
- Sludge floatation