c-Jun response is involved in the development of ischemic brain injury, which is activated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK-1). The activity of JNK-1 is strictly regulated, and only the phosphorylated form of JNK (phospho-JNK) which is translocated to the nucleus has an ability to activate c-Jun response. There is a protein which inhibits JNK-1 activation, and known as JNK interacting protein-1 (JIP-1). In this study, we investigated change in JNK-1, phospho-JNK, and JIP-1 immunoreactivity in rat brain after transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Immunoreactive JNK-1 was scant in the sham-control brain, but it was induced at 1 h after reperfusion, which was slightly increased at 3 h of reperfusion. By contrast, phospho-JNK remained negative till 3 h. At 8 h, JNK-1 and phospho-JNK became distinctly positive, and nuclei as well as cytoplasm were stained. Thereafter, immunoreactivity for JNK-1 and phospho-JNK became furthermore dense, and most neurons revealed positively stained nuclei. Immunoreactivity for JIP-1 remained negative till 8 h of reperfusion, but at 24 and 72 h, cytoplasm of cortical neurons at the MCA boundary area was positively stained. This JIP-1 induction got behind the JNK-1 activation, and therefore, may be a vain effort for neurons to survive. Inhibition of JNK-1 activation might become an innovative means of therapy for stroke treatment in the future. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.
- C-Jun N-terminal kinase
- C-Jun N-terminal kinase interacting protein