Cdt1 is an essential component for the assembly of a pre-replicative complex. Cdt1 activity is inhibited by geminin, which also participates in neural development and embryonic differentiation in many eukaryotes. Although Cdt1 homologues have been identified in organisms ranging from yeast to human, geminin homologues had not been described for Caenorhabditis elegans and fungi. Here, we identify the C. elegans geminin, GMN-1. Biochemical analysis reveals that GMN-1 associates with C. elegans CDT-1, the Hox protein NOB-1, and the Six protein CEH-32. GMN-I inhibits not only the interaction between mouse Cdt1 and Mcm6 but also licensing activity in Xenopus egg extracts. RNA interference-mediated reduction of GMN-1 is associated with enlarged germ nuclei with aberrant nucleolar morphology, severely impaired gametogenesis, and chromosome bridging in intestinal cells. We conclude that the Cdt1-geminin system is conserved throughout metazoans and that geminin has evolved in these taxa to regulate proliferation and differentiation by directly interacting with Cdt1 and homeobox proteins.