Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to examine the effect of caffeine on tear volume. The secondary aim was to investigate the relation between caffeine-induced changes in tear volume and polymorphisms in ADORA2A and CYP1A2. Design: Double-masked, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Participants: Seventy-eight healthy volunteers were recruited for the study. Methods: Subjects participated in 2 sessions in which they received capsules containing either placebo or caffeine. The caffeine capsules were given to the subjects to keep the caffeine volume per body weight within 5 to 7 mg/kg. After caffeine intake, tear meniscus height (TMH) was measured. Subjects provided a blood sample for genotyping. Main Outcome Measures: Tear meniscus height, single nucleotide polymorphism. Results: The tear volume increased after caffeine consumption. The net increase in TMH was 0.08 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.10) greater when participants were given caffeine than when given placebo (P<0.0001). In ADORA2A, the difference in the net increase in TMH for participants who were heterozygous at rs5751876 and rs2298383 was 0.07 mm (P = 0.001) and who were minor homozygous was 0.08 mm (P = 0.007). In CYP1A2, the net increase in TMH for participants who were minor homozygous at rs2472304 was lower than for those who were major homozygous; the difference was 0.06 mm (P = 0.039). Conclusions: Caffeine intake increases tear volume and polymorphisms within ADORA2A, and CYP1A2 is associated with the tear increase after caffeine intake. Genetic polymorphisms had a significant effect on tear meniscus that was of limited clinical significance. Financial Disclosure(s): The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any of the materials discussed in this article.