Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-like immunoreactivity (LI) in the human hypothalamus was investigated by radioimmunoassay and by immunocytochemistry. CGRP-LI was detected from two hypothalami obtained at autopsy (2.1 and 7.0 ng/g wet tissue) by radioimmunossay. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography revealed that most of the CGRP-LI in the human hypothalamus was eluted in an identical position with synthetic human CGRP. For immunocytochemistry, human hypothalami obtained at autopsy were fixed and cryostat-sectioned at 40 ~m. Free floating sections were immunostained with antibody to CGRP. CGRP-immunoreactive cell bodies were found in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus and infundibular nucleus. These findings indicate that CGRP exists in the cell bodies of the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus and infundibular nucleus in the human hypothalamus and CGRP may play some roles in the endocrine and other functions of the human hypothalamus.