Carbonyl stress in uremia

Toshio Miyata, Kiyoshi Kurokawa

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The accumulation in uremic circulation of reactive carbonyl compounds (RCOs) generated from carbohydrates and lipids has been unraveled and recently referred to as carbonyl stress. Two mechanisms are considered to account for the cause of carbonyl stress in uremia: an increased generation or a decreased detoxification of RCOs. RCOs modify protein amino residues by nonenzymatic biochemistry and form two types of irreversible alterations of proteins: advanced glycation end products (AGEs) through the Maillard reaction and advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs) derived from lipid peroxidation. Studies support the active contribution of carbonyl stress in uremic complications, such as atherogenesis. RCOs as well as AGEs/ALEs interfere with various cellular functions and initiate a range of cellular responses. More studies are required to elucidate the contribution of nutrition to the pathophysiology of carbonyl stress and to the eventual complications of uremia.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNutritional Management of Renal Disease, Fourth Edition
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9780128185407
ISBN (Print)9780128185414
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jan 1


  • Reactive carbonyl compounds (RCOs)
  • advanced glycation end products (AGEs)
  • advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs)
  • atherogenesis
  • carbonyl stress
  • nonenzymatic biochemistry
  • oxidative stress
  • pentosidine
  • uremic complication


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