Card-Based Covert Lottery

Yuto Shinoda, Daiki Miyahara, Kazumasa Shinagawa, Takaaki Mizuki, Hideaki Sone

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Before starting to play a two-player board game such as Chess and Shogi (namely, Japanese chess), we have to determine who makes the first move. Players’ strategies of Chess and Shogi often rely on whether they will move first or not, and most players have their own preferences. Therefore, it would be nice if we can take their individual requests into account when determining who goes first. To this end, if the two players simply tell their preferable moves to each other, they will notice the other’s strategy. Thus, we want the players to determine the first move according to their requests while hiding any information about them. Note that this problem cannot be solved by a typical way done in Chess, namely, a coin-flipping. In this paper, we formalize this problem in a cryptographic perspective and propose a secure protocol that solves this problem using a deck of physical cards. Moreover, we extend this problem to the multi-player setting: Assume that there is a single prize in a lottery drawing among more than two players, each of who has an individual secret feeling ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ that indicates whether he/she really wants to get the prize or not. If one or more players have ‘Yes,’ we want to randomly and covertly choose a winner among those having ‘Yes.’ If all of them have ‘No,’ we want to randomly pick a winner among all the players. We solve this extended problem, which we call the “covert lottery” problem, by proposing a simple card-based protocol.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInnovative Security Solutions for Information Technology and Communications - 13th International Conference, SecITC 2020, Revised Selected Papers
EditorsDiana Maimut, Andrei-George Oprina, Damien Sauveron
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages14
ISBN (Print)9783030692544
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event13th International Conference on Security for Information Technology and Communications, SecITC 2020 - Bucharest, Romania
Duration: 2020 Nov 192020 Nov 20

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume12596 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference13th International Conference on Security for Information Technology and Communications, SecITC 2020


  • Card-based protocols
  • Deck of cards
  • Physical cryptography
  • Real-life hands-on cryptography
  • Secure multiparty computations


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