Card-Based Protocol Against Actively Revealing Card Attack

Ken Takashima, Daiki Miyahara, Takaaki Mizuki, Hideaki Sone

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


In 1989, den Boer presented the first card-based protocol, called the “five-card trick” that securely computes the AND function using a deck of physical cards via a series of actions such as shuffling and turning over cards. This protocol enables a couple to confirm their mutual love without revealing their individual feelings. During such a secure computation protocol, it is important to keep any information about the inputs secret. Almost all existing card-based protocols are secure under the assumption that all players participating in a protocol are semi-honest or covert, i.e., they do not deviate from the protocol if there is a chance that they will be caught when cheating. In this paper, we consider a more malicious attack in which a player as an active adversary can reveal cards illegally without any hesitation. Against such an actively revealing card attack, we define the t-secureness, meaning that no information about the inputs leaks even if at most t cards are revealed illegally. Subsequently, we design a 1-secure AND protocol. Thus, our contribution is the construction of the first formal framework to handle actively revealing card attacks and their countermeasures.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTheory and Practice of Natural Computing - 8th International Conference, TPNC 2019, Proceedings
EditorsCarlos Martín-Vide, Geoffrey Pond, Miguel A. Vega-Rodríguez
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)9783030344993
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Event8th International Conference on the Theory and Practice of Natural Computing, TPNC 2019 - Kingston, Canada
Duration: 2019 Dec 92019 Dec 11

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume11934 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference8th International Conference on the Theory and Practice of Natural Computing, TPNC 2019


  • Active Security
  • Card-based protocols
  • Cryptography
  • Secure multiparty computations


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